Characterising lake sediments by NIRS: integrating teaching and research in the Universities Central Teaching Laboratory

image2
A trend of ‘brownification’ identified in surface waters across the UK, North America and Northern Europe has been a growing concern, with the transfer of organic carbon from catchments to lake basins and water courses increasing. To explore this problem, in 2012-3 graduate teaching assistant Fiona Russell began PhD research investigating whether the sedimentary records preserved in lake basins provided new information on the longer term onset of this trend, the nature of any previous events in the last 11,500 years and the causes of browner surface waters. This research has used lakes in the UK Uplands Water Monitoring Network (formerly known as Acid Waters Monitoring Network), who for 30 years have collected data that shows some of these acid sensitive sites are affected by increases in the flux of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and browner waters. The research involved accessing the sediments from these lakes and exploring for patterns that matched recent increases in monitored DOC and for other changes in the organic stratigraphy that might explain the patterns.
IMG_0488

Humic waters on the edge of Loch Grannoch

 At this time, the award winning state-of-the-art Central Teaching Laboratories (CTL) at the University of Liverpool expanded the Infrared Spectrometry capabilities adding a Near-infrared Diffuse Reflectance machine. The Bruker MPA Diffuse Reflectance Fourier Transform Near Infrared Spectrometer (FT-NIRS) was added to the teaching facility to enable the rapid and non-destructive characterisation of powders including soils and sediments. NIRS has proven to be a valuable tool for quantifying the components present in lake sediments, such as type and quantity of organic and mineral matter. Often the approach uses direct comparison of the NIR spectra to parallel independently measured parameters, for example organic content (loss-on-ignition or total organic carbon). This approach requires the development of an extensive training set of parallel measurements, and one has been developed in the CTL to enable undergraduates and postgraduates to estimate loss-on-ignition by NIRS. The NIRS measurement takes 60 seconds and is non-destructive, whereas equivalent combustion methods take several hours, are destructive and more difficult to accommodate in the time frame of practical classes.
CMDvyWjWgAAOfJM

MPA FT-NIRS in the Central Teaching Laboratory

In developing utilities to support teaching in the School of Environmental Sciences, Fiona Russell began exploring alternative approaches to the handling of NIR spectra to obtain a broader range of environmental information from sediments and soils. The approach developed rather than using a large training set, for example our loss-on-ignition dataset comprises > 200 samples with parallel NIRS and l-o-i measurements, instead uses a library of end member NIR spectra measured for known composition materials e.g. biogenic silica (diatoms), humic/fulvic acids (key components of DOC), rock and mineral types. This alternative approach, recently published in the Journal of Paleolimnology (click here), applies a multiple regression of a selection of known material NIR spectra to a sample set of NIR spectra measured for unknown composition materials, in this research lake sediment samples. The research shows that with appropriate selection of 3-5 end member spectra, the method can reconstruct successfully the proportions that these end members form in the series of unknown lake sediments. This different approach means that environmental reconstructions can be undertaken using 3-5 end member spectra rather than a library of >100-200 parallel measurements and it can reconstruct the proportions of multiple end member materials or sediment components simultaneously.

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

To demonstrate the approach, we sampled a 14,500 year duration sediment core from Loch Grannoch in the Galloway Hills (SW Scotland). Loch Grannoch is a small upland oligotrophic lake that has granite bedrock, relatively large catchment area and is one of the lakes in the UK Uplands Water Monitoring Network. Applying our approach reveals a down-core pattern of varying dominance by biogenic silica, organic and mineral content from the late glacial to present. Testing a wider range of end members shows there is sensitivity to the choice of end members, with a local bedrock or sediment end member characteristic of the lake catchment important. The wider generality of the approach, and the utility of our growing library of mineral, organic and biogenic silica end-member materials, is demonstrated by successful ‘blind’ application to additional lake sediment cores from Wales, Norway and Sweden each with differing climate and bedrock.
10933_2019_76_Fig7_HTML

Fitting mineral, organic and biogenic silica end members to multiple lakes.

The technique development embedded in this research showcases the importance of integrating teaching and research at the University of Liverpool. The paper is available as Open Access from the Journal of Paleolimnology should you wish to read more about it. The team have made available the library of end member NIR spectra and the multiple regression method code developed using the open source R platform with the the online version of the paper supplementary materials and in the University of Liverpool DataCat archive. The methodology is now being used routinely by colleagues, undergraduate and postgraduate students to characterise materials in their learning and independent research. For further information please contact the authors: Fiona Russell, John Boyle and Richard Chiverrell.

 

Advertisements

Carceral Geography comes to Liverpool

Post by Dr Jennifer Turner

Human Geography at Liverpool has a strong reputation for the study of socio-spatial exclusion, inequality, geographies of the life-course and developing understandings of moving, mobile populations. As a new Lecturer in Human Geography, I’ve been excited to join this vibrant department, bringing to it, a further way of thinking about those themes – through the study of so-called ‘carceral’ life – or, in layman’s terms, thinking about the geographies of places of imprisonment, detainment or confinement and the people who are involved with these spaces.

My research focuses upon spaces and practices of incarceration, past and present. Most recently, I have interrogated prison architecture, design, technology and their potential to impact upon rehabilitation. Other interests include penal tourism, articulations of the prison boundary and conceptualisations of carceral space. My work has been published widely in the fields of carceral geography and criminology.  Please see my website for further details.

I’ll be bringing this specialism to Liverpool through a variety of teaching at undergraduate level and postgraduate level, including the modules ENVS385 Issues in Geography and ENVS434 Space, Power and Culture.

Here will be will thinking about a range of themes; some covered in a new book entitled Carceral Mobilities: Interrogating Movement in Incarceration just published with another Liverpool geographer, Dr Kimberley Peters.

carceral-mobilities

The book has been an exciting, cross disciplinary project. At first glance, the words ‘carceral’ and ‘mobilities’ seem to sit uneasily together. Yet, through its introduction and 17 chapters, the book challenges the assumption that carceral life is characterised by a lack of movement; and that mobilities scholars may find no obvious interest in supposed spaces of confinement and stasis – the prison, camp or asylum centre. Identifying and unpicking the manifold mobilities that shape (and are shaped by) carceral regimes, the book brings together contributions that speak to contemporary debates across carceral studies and mobilities research, offering fresh insights to both areas of concern. It features four sections that move the reader through the varying typologies of motion underscoring carceral life: tension; circulation; distribution; and transition. Each mobilities-led section seeks to explore the politics encapsulated in specific regimes of carceral movement.

It is now argued that mobilities research is ‘centre stage’ in the social sciences with wide-ranging work that considers the politics underscoring the movements of people and objects. From studies that examine technologies of motion, to the infrastructures that enable/disable mobility; and from investigations of the subjects made mobile or immobile by regimes of regulation, to the materialities that shape and are shaped by mobilities, what this turn has come to achieve is a critical consideration a world that is ever ‘on the move’. This book, however, offers a fresh perspective on these questions, exploring mobilities through a carceral lens.

Featuring contributions from leading academics working in the field of carceral studies and mobilities research (as well as a strong selection of chapters from emerging scholars, freelance writers and social workers), the book brings together timely discussions in one collection, which will appeal to wide, cross-disciplinary audiences, contributing firmly to current conceptual debates shaping the social sciences. Indeed, drawing on a range of international examples (from the UK, Europe, Australia, South-East Asia, North and South America), the book offers an authoritative, global collection on the theme of carceral mobilities, from a variety of disciplinary perspectives including Criminology, Sociology, History, Cultural Theory, Human Geography and Urban Planning. A foreword and afterword will be provided by established figures in carceral geography (Dr Dominique Moran) and mobilities studies (Professor Peter Merriman), also illuminates how understandings of ‘carcerality’ and ‘mobility’ can each inform the other.  The book therefore offers a first port of call for those examining spaces of detention, asylum, imprisonment and containment, who are increasingly interested in questions of movement in relation to the management, control, and confinement of populations.

You’ll be able to access this in the library soon!

Top Ten Blog Posts of 2014

photo (6)

As we enter 2015 we look back at the top 10 most viewed blog posts of 2015. These include posts by current and past undergraduate and postgraduate students and staff and give a good idea of some of the things that we do here in Geography at University of Liverpool. We look forward to more posts in 2015 and wish you all a happy new year.

 

10

10. In Tenth place, a post from February 2014 by PhD student Madeleine Gustavsson on her first publication: First publication – ‘Procedural and distributive justice in a community-based Marine Protected Area in Zanzibar, Tanzania’

 

9

9. In Ninth place, a post from June 2014 by James Wilford who graduated with a BA (Hons) Geography in July this year on the Singapore Field Class 2014

 

8

8. In Eighth place, a post from June 2014 by Dr. Paul Williamson on the winners of the Edinburgh Field Class 2014 Photo Competition

 

7

7. In Seventh place, a post from May 2014 by Samantha Brannan who graduated with a BSc (Hons) Geography in July this year on Geographers on Tour: Santa Cruz Field Class 2014

 

6

6. In sixth place, a post from January 2014 about Lisa Reilly who graduated in July this year about her success as National Student Award Winner

 

5

5. In Fifth place, a post from December 2014 by Dr Bethan Evans on a Disability, Arts and Wellbeing Workshop with DaDaFest

 

4

4. In Fourth place, a post from October 2014 by Sean Dunn who graduated with a BSc (Hons) Geography in July this year and is now studying for an MSc. His post is about the final year Santa Cruz field class on California Field Class and Travel

3

3. In Third place, a post from August 2014 by Alexandra Guy, currently a second year BA Geography student on A Year in the Life of an Undergraduate Geography Student

 

2

2. In Second Place, a post from August 2014 by PhD student Natalie Robinson on her research with homeless people in Chicago ‘This is My Story: A Photographic Exploration of Chicago’ – Notes from the field.

1

1. And in First place, our most viewed blog of 2014 is a post from February 2014 by Jonny Clark who graduated in July with a BSc (Hons) Geography on How a work-based dissertation re-affirmed my confidence in my subject, my own ability and my future

New book alert!

Kathy Burrell has just had a new book published with Palgrave MacMillan. Co-edited with Kathrin Horschelmann at Durham/Leipzig the books brings together a diverse range of chapters to consider different aspects of mobility during and after socialism in Eastern Europe and the (former) USSR. See link and blurb:

http://www.palgraveconnect.com/pc/doifinder/10.1057/9781137267290

This edited collection explores what mobility meant, and means, in the specific contexts of socialist and post-socialist Soviet and East European societies. Under the socialist regimes, mobility was at the heart of everyday interactions with the state, from controls on travel and communications mobilities to daily experiences of transport usage and the immobility of queuing for goods at times of shortages. These mobilities have been reshaped under post-socialist regimes. While the collapse of socialism heralded a liberalization of international migration and increased automobility, new experiences of poverty, unemployment, and in the case of some states, war, plus the loss of subsidized travel greatly reduced fields of mobility. Bringing together contributors from the dynamic fields of Mobilities and Socialist/Post-Socialist Studies this book uses the focus on socialist and post-socialist mobilities to investigate fundamental intersections of power, control, resistance and inequality.

9781137267290_large

New Paper – Low immigrant mortality in England and Wales: a data artefact?

Guest Post by Matthew Wallace

SSM_Front_Cover

Last week, I published a paper in Social Science & Medicine examining mortality among the major immigrant groups in England and Wales over a thirty year period from 1971 to 2001. While recent national media focus has fixated firmly on the fiscal cost of ‘health tourism’ – Migrants to face emergency NHS charges” (BBC), End of free NHS care for migrants under new bill” (Telegraph), Tough rules to stop health tourists” (Daily Mail) – there has been little focus on the health of immigrants who actually live in England and Wales. The health and mortality of these groups is of substantial interest to policy-makers. Evidence suggests inequalities in health by ethnicity and country of birth, but there has been insufficient consideration of the importance of country of origin and length of residence in the United Kingdom.

In short, results from the paper show low mortality (compared to non-migrants in England and Wales) for individuals from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Western Europe, China and group Other Asia. Analysis also shows that this low mortality begins converging to native levels over time – though low mortality persists for some groups at old ages. As to why we see these patterns, low mortality among first-generation immigrants provides evidence of a ‘healthy migrant effect’ whereby individuals initially ‘select’ for good health and the personality traits often associated with a successful migration (ambition, social adeptness and risk-resilience). This good health and low mortality then wears off over time as individuals ‘acculturate’ or adopt the unfavourable habits and behaviours of the host society.

There are of course many additional dimensions to the research which I do not cover here. If you would like to read the discussion in full, the paper is available online through journal Social Science & Medicine or alternatively, at: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Matthew_Wallace3. If there is anything you would like to discuss, please feel free to email me at m.wallace@liverpool.ac.uk. The paper was co-authored with Dr Hill Kulu; the research was supported by the Economic and Social Research Council [ES/J500094/1] with permission from the Office for National Statistics. The next step of my research is to study the mortality of second generation migrants in England and Wales. Previous research suggests that this group do not share the low mortality of their parents and may actually have a higher mortality risk than natives.

First publication – ‘Procedural and distributive justice in a community-based Marine Protected Area in Zanzibar, Tanzania’

By Madeleine Gustavsson

As a PhD student in the Department of Geography and Planning, earlier this week I got my first research article published in Marine Policy: “Procedural and distributive justice in a community-based Marine Protected Area in Zanzibar, Tanzania”. The paper was co-authored by Lars Lindström (Dept. Political Science, Stockholm University), Narriman S. Jiddawi (Institute of Marine Sciences, University of Dar es Salaam) and Maricela de la Torre-Castro (Dept. Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm University) who are all experts on natural resource management and governance in Zanzibar, Tanzania.

Uroa, Zanzibar Island

Uroa, Zanzibar Island

The article investigates participation by local actors in planning and implementation of a ‘community-based managed’ Marine Protected Area (MPA) in Zanzibar, Tanzania, which is analysed in terms of procedural and distributive justice.

The study finds that no local actors participated in the planning of the MPA. Fishermen who were members of a village fishermen committee participated in implementation although this did not include women. The government of Zanzibar distributed equipment, alternative income generating projects and relied on tourism for development of the local economy. However, the distributed equipment and tourism development have created conflict and injustice within and between villages, because of the insufficient resources, which do not target those in need. Tourism created problems such as inequality between livelihoods, environmental destruction and local power asymmetries between hotel management and local people.” This paper found that neither procedural nor distributive justice has been achieved. The MPA has further failed to meet its objectives of conflict resolution and sustainable use of natural resources.  The paper argues that interactive participation by all, in the design and planning phases, is necessary for social-ecological sustainability outcomes.

The work was part of my master’s degree project at Stockholm University, Sweden. The paper adds to the growing field of MPAs social impacts in developing countries. Thanks for reading this blog post, and if you are interested, please get in contact (Click here to email).

The Anthropocene Review: Issue 1 Content

pub-logo

Following the recent announcement that the new, peer-reviewed journal The Anthropocene Review has launched (based from the Department of Geography and Planning, School of Environmental Sciences), we are delighted to confirm the Table of Contents for Issue 1 of our journal. These contributions will present research on many aspects of the Anthropocene ensuring the journal lives up to its transdisciplinary remit.

Whilst the full issue will appear in print in April 2014, articles will appear as OnlineFirst versions as soon as the proofs have been accepted by the authors. These will be hosted on the journal website. We would particularly like to highlight that SAGE are currently offering free online access to The Anthropocene Review.

Interested readers can subscribe to RSS notifications or email alerts via this website and it will also contain information about the journal that is not hosted by our blog, including specific details on manuscript submission, how articles are indexed by SAGE as well as information on permissions for posting reprints of manuscripts.

Lastly, we are continuously searching for contributions to future Issues. Why not consider submitting a manuscript to this important new journal?

Issue 1: Table of Contents

Oldfield F, Barnosky AD, Dearing J, Fischer-Kowalski M, McNeill J, Steffen W and Zalasiewicz J.  The Anthropocene Review: Its significance, implications and the rationale for a new transdisciplinary journal.

Barnosky AD and Hadly EA. Problem solving in the Anthropocene.

Barnosky AD, Brown JH, Daily GC, Ehrlich AH, Ehrelich PR, Eronen JT, Fortelius M, Hadly EA, Leopold EB, Mooney HA, Myers JP, Naylor RL, Palumbi S, StensethNC and Wake MH. Scientific Consensus on Maintaining Humanity’s Life Support Systems in the 21st Century: Information for Policy Makers

McMichael AJ. Population Health in the Anthropocene: Gains, losses and emerging trends.

Biermann FH. The Anthropocene: a governance perspective.

Malm A and Hornborg A. The Geology of Mankind?  A Critique of the Anthropocene Narrative

Zalasiewicz J, Williams M, Waters CN, Barnosky AD and Haff P.  The technofossil record of humans.

Fischer-Kowalski M, Krausmann and Pallua I. A socio-metabolic reading of the Anthropocene: modes of subsistence, population size and human impact on Earth.

Oldfield F and Steffen W. Anthropocene climate change and the nature of Earth System Science